A New Leadership Culture Case Study

Abstract

Based on case study of “A New Leadership Culture” we will try to answer how Kolab’s self-identity influences her ability to lead, then the cultural value dimensions, the organization and Kolab operate under. We will try to explore how Kolab can integrate organization’s cultural value with her own to be a better leader. Finally we will recommend cultural intelligence strategies for Kolab and her subordinates and we will identify the benefits organization will have those strategies.

Keywords: stereotyping, generalization, cultural intelligence

How does Kolab’s self-identify influence her ability to lead?

International Education Center had hired Kolab 6 months back. Before IEC, Kolab was a director of national programming and services for the Office of Refugee Resettlement or ORR in Washington, D.C. And before that Kolab worked for an international relief agency and she used to travel throughout Southeast Asia and Africa. She used to manage daily operations in the organization’s field offices in South East Asia and Africa.

Kolab was born in Cambodia and had to flee her country with the parents during Communist rule in her country. She grew up as a refugee in the USA. So she is motivated and passionate about international work, she is known as “go-getter” and a “high performer”.

            Here the key issue is, Kolab’s personal values do not match with the values of the employees of IEC. This is because of Kolab’s upbringing and what Kolab has faced in her life. She is focused, task and goal oriented. But Hanh had different values, she had good relations with everyone in the state and with her coworkers. They were much more relaxed ( as it appears). So, the employees of IEC do not like their new leader Kolab, who is liked by the board for her qualities and values though. The board wants to take the organization to national level from State level.

            Hanh who was with IEC for 10 years has stepped down and Kolab has taken her place. As we find out Hanh was well liked, but Kolab is not. Employees miss Hanh. Kolab is not being able to motivate them and neither can she engaged them. It is pretty evident that Kolab is a taskmaster and does not care for anyone’s personal life. She is not happy with the Organization’s culture either.

            It is difficult to lead this organization for Kolab since the culture here was much more relaxed, not really goal-oriented. Although Hanh maintains a good relationship with many people within the state the organization did not expand. The culture was more based on the personal relationship than focusing on goals or tasks. And Kolab is a goal oriented taskmaster. That is why due to the mismatch in values and cultures Kolab’s ability to leading the organization does not seem to be working.

What cultural value dimensions does the organization operate under?           

We learn about the cultural values of the organization in the text. The board wanted to expand to the national level, so they had a goal in mind. Hanh, the previous director, was very effective in personal relationship building. She left the organization after 10 years and Kolab was brought in to expand the organization as the board wanted it to. Then we see how the employees feel about Kolab and that gives us some idea about the culture too. There was a very good personal relationship among the employees. Hanh might have been an empathetic leader who motivated the employees. She was approachable and she did not make employees feel that they did not have a personal life.

What about Kolab?

            Kolab grew up as a refugee in the USA. Her motivation and passion was international work. She already worked in field offices in South East Asia and Africa. Kolab was known as a “go-getter” and “high performer”. She was a goal-oriented taskmaster. Kolab is focused towards taking the organization to the national level, and she wants to change the culture of the organization, she wants everyone to be more goal focused and achievement oriented. And that is why her employees feel so disconnected and demotivated.

How can Kolab integrate the organization’s cultural value dimensions with her own to ensure overall success?

            Kolab is new to the organization. Although she has work experience in other organizations, the culture of IEC is something new for her, and she needs to develop cultural intelligence. As a leader, she can sense she is not popular and she is not being able to motivate others. She wants to change the culture, attitude, and behavior of the employees. But, Kolab needs to figure out what is she lacking.

            Acquiring knowledge is crucial, she needs to understand that the organizational culture is a personal relationship based, everyone expects the leader to be approachable and empathetic. Kolab should get those understandings first. She needs to understand the cultural differences and what the culture of this organization is.

            Kolab has what the board would like. She is a go-getter and high performer. Now she needs to observe and actively listen to the other employees to understand, what they want in her. And then integrate those changes in her existing values.

            Then she needs to contemplate on her own behavior and how she could improve it. Probably she is so task focused she does not value personal bonds and she does not show much empathy. She needs to develop these, so her employees can depend on her and have trust in her. We have not seen any negative attitude in Kolab, and she should be positive in her mind about these changes too.

            Kolab wants to change the culture within the organization, but that is not possible overnight. She needs to first work on herself then work on others. Once she has developed good relationships with each employee, she needs to present her vision in front of employees. And be honest about it. She needs to communicate that this vision is coming from the board and the fact that Hanh could not deliver is in 10 years is one important angle. And then, Kolab needs to communicate her ideas about necessary changes in culture to obtain the vision. And she should be open to questions and inputs from the team members/employees, otherwise, they will not take this vision as their own.

What cultural intelligence strategies do you recommend for Kolab and her employees? How do these strategies benefit the organization?

           Managers should consider multiple forms of intelligence when assessing leadership potential, especially when work roles include responsibility for coordinating complex social interactions (Rockstuhl, Seiler, Ang, Van Dyne & Annen, 2011) Kolab does not have much knowledge about the culture of IEC. And her employees do not know the cultural background and values Kolab has. So both parties have to work on acquiring knowledge. Depending on the employee number, Kolab can meet with each employee individually weekly or monthly. It will give them the opportunity to interact with each other. The discussion agenda could be what the employee is working on if she has any impediment and what his or her goals and timelines are.

            Kolab can have an open door policy, which is if an employee needs to see her, she can go see Kolab in her office or Kolab can send out an email to employees stating that if anyone needs to approach her they can just send her a meeting request and get a time slot for the meeting.

            Kolab can have lunch with the employees to build rapport. Kolab understands from the remarks she overheard that she is not considered to approachable, she can employ these strategies and be approachable while not losing track of what she wants the culture should be. And Kolab should observe and actively listen more when employees talk to her, so she understands them better.

            The employees, on the other hand, should understand they have a new boss, and the new boss will have a different style. So they should actively listen more, observe more to increase their knowledge about Kolab.  More importantly, they need to understand what Kolab wants, what are her goals. If someone has any prior commitments after work they need to communicate it to Kolab via email or in person so that no one feels that they do not have a personal life. Most important part is understanding what Kolab wants and why, and they should ask questions if something is not clear to them. As Kolam and employees interact more, increasingly they will tell each other their stories and eventually they will find out more about each other. And that is how a bond will be formed among them.  Solomon & Steyn (2017) reports that there is a stronger relationship between a leader’s cultural intelligence and empowerment leadership. For example, empowering leadership, leader metacognitive and motivational cultural intelligence acted as essential antecedents, while for directive leadership, leader’s motivational, cognitive and metacognitive cultural knowledge played a predictive part that carried a common effect.

Now coming to the point, the board brought in Kolab with a specific goal and the organization needs to achieve it. Kolab can make that happen with her goal oriented attitude. And with time as this strategy works, the employees will feel more motivated and they will start liking Kolab too. It will be easier for Kolab to work with her employees too. This was, they all will be able to work as a team and reach the goal faster. 

References:

Solomon, A. & Steyn, S. (2017). Leadership style and leadership effectiveness: Does cultural intelligence moderate the relationship? Acta Commercii, Vol 17, Iss 1, Pp E1-E13 (2017), (1), e1.

Maxwell-Wilson, S. A. (2016). Cultural Intelligence and Intercultural Leadership. Leadership & Organizational Management Journal, 2016(4), 2.

Rockstuhl, T., Seiler, S., Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., & Annen, H. (2011). Beyond General Intelligence (IQ) and Emotional Intelligence (EQ): The Role of Cultural Intelligence (CQ) on Cross-Border Leadership Effectiveness in a Globalized World. Journal of Social Issues, 67(4), 825–840.

Discuss each specific element of the ABC’s (Acquire, Build, Contemplate, and Do) of Cultural Intelligence

Discuss each specific element of the ABC’s (Acquire, Build, Contemplate, and Do) of Cultural Intelligence

            In this day and age, when people are moving around all over the planet, in any organization you will find coworker from a different background and with a different value. Moreover, we often need to travel to a different city, a different state or to a different country. It is just safe to assume that we are going to experience personal level, regional level, and national level values and culture. One might have intelligence and emotional intelligence, but without cultural intelligence, it would be impossible to navigate through the diversity most organizations employ.

Cultural Intelligence consists of 4 parts –

Acquire knowledge

            Build strategic thinking

            Motivation

            Behaviors

Acquiring knowledge about the culture one interacts with is the first step in developing cultural intelligence. One must pay attention to learn the cultural symbols, behaviors, reactions and any other possible information. Just to add my 2 cents, peer learning, observing and active listening can accelerate the process of acquiring knowledge.

Strategic thinking is when one uses this acquired knowledge. One good example we see in this week’s reading when the author was waiting for the UAE man to check her passport. She had the knowledge that left hand was considered to be not pure and she used the knowledge and switched hands. Similarly, the information we get, we need to contemplate and understand so we know when to use it and how to use it.

            We need to learn when to switch off our personal biases and open our minds to the new culture and why. Mainly to navigate through unfamiliar situations, and learn. The big motivation should be the (leadership) position one is in, knowing that organizations are spread across different regions and countries and it is better to learn the cultural differences and develop cultural intelligence so one can learn and quickly adapt to changes of situation.

            Behavior would change based on the changed situation, and that is the sign of cultural intelligence.  This might sound bit complicated, but culturally intelligent people actually change their behavior based on what is acceptable or what is expected in a situation and surroundings. Adapting is the essential skill to adjust to a new cultural setup and one needs to change his or behavior accordingly.

 What makes culture intelligence unique and how does it differ from emotional and social intelligence? 

Cultural intelligence is more of a framework to steer through unfamiliar cultural situations. Cultural Intelligence is an outsider’s seemingly natural ability to interpret someone’s unfamiliar and ambiguous gestures the way that person’s compatriots would (Early and Mosakowski, 2004). Cultural intelligence is more specific than emotional and social intelligence.

Emotional intelligence is the ability to identify and manage your own emotions and the emotions of others (Psychology Today, n.d.). If you are an active listener and empathetic you will carry that quality where you go and when you show empathy to another individual and try to understand his or her individual situation, you will be using your emotional intelligence.

Social Intelligence is showing the same intelligence that is picking up others emotions, picking up on cues in one’s social environment, so essentially this is emotional intelligence applied on a social level.

Culture Intelligence is more of applying or acting on what the person picks us using emotional intelligence. Hence adaptation and adjusting become more important in new cultural situations.

 What makes cultural intelligence particularly valuable in terms of leadership competency in today’s global market?

            In a world where crossing boundaries is routine, CQ becomes a vitally important aptitude and skill, and not just for international bankers and borrowers (Early and Mosakowski, 2004). As I see it, the cultural differences vary from nation to nation, based on region, and based on organizations, within the organization it varies based on team and then of course at an individual level. Within an organization, one has to deal with coworkers from a different cultural background or work with different teams or clients or different organizations. And in these situations, one has to know how to adapt and adjust, which is essentially cultural intelligence. And to do well in a team, with clients , vendors or customer or just to get along with a coworker from a different geographic location, one has to develop cultural intelligence. Especially in leadership role, because the market is global and most organizations are also global.

 References –

Earley, P.C and Mosakowski, E (October, 2004). Cultural Intelligence. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2004/10/cultural-intelligence

Retrieved on 9/22/2018. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/basics/emotional-intelligence

The learning process

Using the concept of metacognitive knowledge (the learning processes, your beliefs about how you learn and how you think others learn; the task of learning and how you process information; and the strategies you develop and when you will use them), discuss how you would learn a new skill for your job in 6 months. Discuss each of the following areas in detail:  

  • The learning process
  • Tasks of learning
  • The strategies that you will use to meet this goal.

The learning process

I need to learn a skill (say a coding / programming skill or new computer language) in 6 months that I am given. Staying positive is crucial. I need to stay positive about the fact that I can learn the skill within the given time. I will try to think if I learned something similar in past and how did I do it, what challenges I faced and how did I overcome those. Next I will consider how others learned it. And how much time it took them to learn the skill. Moreover, what challenges they faced and how did they overcome those. Getting idea from who has acquired the skill already, will prepare me for potential impediments and I can come up with a mitigation plan early.

Tasks of learning

Before starting the learning process I will need following questions answered for myself, which are also the tasks of learning-

  • How soon can I get study material or required information about learning the new skill?
  • Will I be able to learn the skill in 6 months or will I need more time?
  • What are the study materials or information available to me to start learning?
  • Is this something I have done before? Have I learned similar skill before?
  • Is it going to be difficult to learn the skill?
  • What do I need to do to learn the skill?
  • Do I know anyone who has the skill? Can I get him as my mentor?

The strategies that you will use to meet this goal

            First I will gather any information I can get including study material or tutorials I can possible find and get an idea about the skill.

            My nextstrategy will include finding a mentor, who will guide me through course, who has done it, has the skill and will be able to help me if I get stuck and monitor my progress.

            I will try to study or put in as much hours as possible, so that I can complete learning the skill well before the deadline arrives.

            I will get some knowledge from coworkers who already have the skill and use it, to find out how they use it or what do they do with it. Just to monitor if my learning is effective and I am on right track.

Faith and Health Case Study

Abstract

In the case study of Faith and Health, we learned about the Muslim patient Abdul Hadi and the nurse Anna. We learned how because of his faith Abdul Hadi is facing challenges. We will identify the issues in this paper. We will discuss strategy to resolve the issues faced by Abdul Hadi and we will determine how the hospital can increase their cultural strategic thinking.

Keywords: stereotyping, generalization, cultural intelligence

 Using what you know about cultural intelligence, analyze the situation in terms of national, regional and individual levels.

At the national level, Germany has 3 million Muslim people per the case study. Abdul Hadi is one of the 3 million Muslims and he went through a surgery. His nurse Anna is not a Muslim and she is not familiar with Abdul Hadi’s culture. The issue here is there is the cultural difference at play at the individual level. Anna knows her job well, but she does not know much about the Islamic faith. It is not really Anna’s fault since the nation or region does not have that many Muslims, Anna might not have to care for a Muslim patient before. So she never got an opportunity to work on the cultural difference she had with an individual who follows the Islamic faith. Anna will have to develop cultural intelligence to understand Abdul Hadi, to understand his faith better. Then she will be able to serve him better.

 For each of the five behaviors and needs outlined, find a strategy, or strategies, to resolve the issues.  Utilize the basics of developing and practicing cultural strategic thinking within the Unit 2 reading.

            Let us outline the five behaviors then we will find strategies to resolve the issues.  

Abdul Hadi needs to cleanse himself before prayers, but he seeks for help from a male nurse to cleanse or bathe him

Abdul Hadi cannot have alcohol or pork, not even with medications

Abdul Hadi has dietary restrictions and he cannot have anything from the cafeteria that has pork, gelatin or lard in them.

 Hadi gets visitors, and other patients who share the room with him feels disturbed by the noise Hadi’s visitors make.

Hadi has to pray at specific times, and Anna needs to help to get up and pray, but those specific times Anna is usually assisting other patients.

             Since Anna is taking care of Abdul Hadi whose faith is not known to Anna, she needs to learn and understand why Hadi needs a man to help him cleanse, or when is the time for his prayers. And what items in the cafeteria does not have pork, gelatin or lard in them so Hadi does not have a problem. Peer learning can help her in this situation. Someone who has experience of caring for a Muslim man can be of great help to her.  Or she can try to find a mentor who can guide her on this.

            Gaining cultural knowledge would be helpful too. Hadi has a big family who visits him often. Anna needs to understand the reason. She can understand and empathize with them and politely tell the visitors not to make noise and make them aware that the other patients are getting disturbed.

            Staying positive is also very critical for Anna, as Hadi might appear to be needy or demanding. Anna should not get stressed and understand that once she understands the needs she will gain control over it.

            Being an observer is also required when Anna has an opportunity. She might be busy with work. But, observing Hadi’s family she can learn their culture and may be interacting with them she can find out their dietary preferences, so she would know what to get Hadi, that does not have pork or alcohol.

            Active listening is another strategy that will help Anna. She can understand what Hadi wants to eat or does not want to eat. And when he has to pray, or when to find a male nurse to assist him to cleanse.

 Determine how the hospital can increase their cultural strategic thinking to ensure patients are addressed with care and compassion regardless of their individual culture and beliefs.

            First of all the hospital can spread awareness. Help the nurses and doctors understand the differences people from different cultural background or faith have.

Hiring one mentor who can spread cultural knowledge can really help the hospital staff, in this case specifically the nurses.

Then, the hospital can help the nurses gain better cultural intelligence by providing training to be more observant and help them develop better active listening skills. So that the nurses can listen to patients not only from other faith, in fact, they will be able to be better effective for any patient.

One more thing, the hospital should encourage the nurses for the good work they do. The management should understand, it could be hard and demanding for those nurses too, so little appreciation and encouragement will help the nurses navigate daily work life better.

The hospital should train nurses in a way that female patients are given care by female nurses and male nurses care for men.

 Dr. Joseph Betancourt, director of multicultural education at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston cautioned that there are many variations in practice among Muslims. So healthcare providers should not generalize or make assumptions about patients’ beliefs and practices. According to him, it is helpful for doctors to know something about Muslim traditions and having a better understanding usually improves communication and may actually save time (Rabin, 2010).

There are few other examples too for this hospital – Franklin Hospital in Valley Stream on Long Island, offers patients halal food in keeping with Muslim dietary rules, The hospital might take include intake questionnaires where patients can list their religious concerns and values. The hospital can provide more modest hospital gowns or give the patients an option of wearing their own clothing (Rabin, 2010).

The hospital can hire nurses who speak Arabic and Urdu and make prayer rugs available and setting space aside for prayer rooms (Selvam, 2013).

References

Rabin, R C ( Nov, 2010). Respecting Muslim Patients’ needs. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/01/health/01patients.html Selvam, A ( July, 2013). Making room for Faith. Retrieved from http://www.modernhealthcare.com/article/20130727/MAGAZINE/30727997

Discuss how cultural strategic thinking plays a part within your current organization or an organization that you are familiar with

  Discuss how cultural strategic thinking plays a part within your current organization or an organization that you are familiar with.

I work for an IT services company. We implement Enterprise level application solutions for clients across the globe. I have lived and worked In India, Australia and the USA. In Past 6 years, we implemented software solutions for customers in different countries in Europe, Japan, India, Australia and of course the USA. Our work is often client facing and our teams usually have people from a diverse cultural background. Based on their nationality, ethnicity, religion etc. We need to work closely with clients to understand their needs and then to validate and deploy the solution. Our teams often have offshore parts too. According to David Livermore “A diverse workforce, whose members have developed their cultural intelligence, is a more productive workforce and a diverse team with high cultural intelligence will outperform homogeneous teams”. So, all multinationals are focused on cultural awareness and trying to cultivate cultural intelligence among the employees. The organizations I have worked for are no exceptions.

For each member of the team regardless of the role, has to understand cultural strategic thinking that our organization wants us to learn and adapt to. When someone is in customer facing role, strategic thinking becomes useful, as often the client is also coming from a different background and has different values. And these projects do not last forever. Once we complete one project we move on to the next assignment and we get into a new team with new faces within the team and client side. So, one has to constantly adapt to a new place, culture, and people in my organization and often in my industry. 

What two specific cultural strategic thinking techniques have you observed within your team?

Being part of this industry for over a decade now, I have gotten the opportunity to be part of quite a few teams, and I have observed many cultural strategic thinking techniques within my teams. For example – I) Peer Learning II) Gaining Cultural Knowledge III) Finding a Mentor IV) Observing V) Active Listening

But, I have to give only 2, not 5 that I have mentioned above. So, the most common and effective cultural strategic thinking techniques I have observed with my team are

1. Observing and

2. Active Listening.  

Did you see evidence of Cultural Intelligence (CQ)?

            I consider myself lucky for getting to work with some managers with great active listening skill, which is absolutely critical to understand, interpret, reflect and respond and is an evidence of Cultural Intelligence.

Using the article you read and your text discuss some of what you observed, both in terms of positives and deficits and discuss how CQ could have been improved.

             CQ is a system consisting of three interactive components – cultural knowledge, cross-cultural skills and cultural metacognition (IESE Business School, 2015). Like I have mentioned above, I usually work with teams and each team (my own and teams we are working with) usually are very diverse and I have experienced both positive cultural intelligence and deficits. I have come across managers who were empathetic and had great listening skills. And having these skills with a quality like “gaining cultural knowledge” which basically comes from being interested in the other culture works really well in long run. The bond in the team becomes stronger and the team members become really supportive of each other.

            But there are obvious deficits too. Not everyone takes interest in knowing or understanding other cultures. And, coming from India which is a very diverse country with many states and each state having its own culture, language and everything else, it is very difficult for anyone to keep up with the cultural diversity. And the organization often provide a very basic framework which tells us what to do or not to do – for example, you always wear formal attire, do not use curse words, be respectful to everyone and basic things like that. Which are very generalized, although it works I do not think this helps to build a cultural intelligence. For example, I come from the eastern part of India, and we celebrate a festival that lasts for 5 days. North West part of India celebrates a festival of light (known as Diwali) for 2 days. These are during different time periods and the southern part of India has their own festivals. So, any manager who is not very sensitive and empathetic might not realize these different cultures or the differences, that might cause discontent among teammates, especially if the teammate asks for a vacation during his or her festival and the manager does not approve because he does not realize the cultural significance the festival have to his teammate. After I came out of India, I faced a different sort of situation. I will try to give you some examples involving food, so it is easier to understand. About 60% of the Indian population is vegetarian. And usually vegetarians are not very prominent in the USA or Australia, so during team outing or whenever someone order pizza, I have noticed, the vegetarian, being sort of ignored and feels left out and this happens both ways. I am definitely not trying to blame anyone but trying to point out a lack of understanding of a different culture often appears as an obstacle between team members. I believe organizations can encourage peer learning, and to be observant to understand a person from different culture better.

 References: 

Michell, R ( November, 2014). Benefits of cultural intelligence are reflected in work performance. Retrieved from https://phys.org/news/2014-11-benefits-cultural-intelligence.html

IESE Business School ( March, 2015). Why You Need Cultural Intelligence (And How To Develop It). Retrieved From https://www.forbes.com/sites/iese/2015/03/24/why-you-need-cultural-intelligence-and-how-to-develop-it/#1db268d317d6

Young, Confident, and Moving too Fast Case Study

Abstract

In this paper, we will refer to the case study on “Young, Confident and moving Too Fast”, and explore the beliefs and values “root” Joanne and Julia to their individual conceptions of self. I will try to present some suggestions for both Julia and Joanne when working with persons of other generations and finally I will suggest then to use the cultural intelligence principles to resolve the intercultural situation and how they can reduce generalizations and stereotype related to generation.

Keywords: stereotyping, generalization

What beliefs and values “root” Joanne and Julia to their individual conceptions of self?

            Here are the facts we need to consider about Julia. Julia is confident young 26 years old, who had graduated from the University of Chicago with her master’s degree in social work. She valued independence and quick to make decisions as we have learned. She was the topper of her class and was the “go-to” person for her classmates and professors for resolving conflicts, coming up with strategic and innovative ways to social work. She was motivated and passionate about social justice and social change issues involving poverty and housing.

            We can understand how and why Julia is so confident and motivated. If we examine the facts given to us, her beliefs were well supported by the fact that her professors and classmates highly respected her skills regarding social work.  And, she always came up on top in her class and her course. Her passion for social justice, especially poverty and housing could be the reason of her past experiences. Probably she got her values from her own life experiences or cultural background. But we do not know this for sure. But her passion was a great motivator, and this is why she was so driven at her work. When she got her job at a local non-profit, which provides transitional housing to the homeless, Julia wanted to move fast, she wanted to solve every homeless man and woman’s problem as soon as possible. 

            And here are the facts about Joanne, who was the boss of Julia had different values and beliefs about self. Joanne respected Julia for what Julia was doing. But she was a micromanager. We do not see evidence that Joanne trusted Julia to make the right decision, and she wanted Julia to check with her before making decisions. Joanne never understood that Julia was an independent, motivated and passionate individual. And we see, how Julia works on a presentation for a potential donor, but Joanne excluded Julia from the donor meeting. Joanne had certain beliefs and values, because of which she did not acknowledge or encourage Julia’s passion, motivation and willingness to learn. Moreover, Joanne thought Julia is not capable to learn fast and she needed time otherwise she would make mistake. And she believed as Julia’s superior she knew best what is best for Julia. Joanne, being boss of Julia was right about one fact, that she had more years of experience than Julia did. But her assumption about Julia that Julia is just like how Joanne was, might not be right. We do not see Joanne substantiating her opinions with facts. I believe, her values were absolutely different than Julia’s and that is why she thought, Julia is moving too fast and will make mistake, and moreover, her belief was Julia had the potential to do the job, but she would need time to learn, maybe because she herself was overwhelmed and needed time to learn.

The issue is stereotyping and generalization. Joanne generalized and thought Julia is like anyone else with 2 months experience, and because of Joanne’s generalization and stereotyping she was not being able to appreciate Julia, as a result, Julia felt stuck.

What suggestions do you have for Joanne and Julia when working with persons of other generations?

            Joannewho is Julia’s boss needs to put effort to understand Julia better. She needs to understand why Julia is so motivated and why does she have a high expectation in her career and what expectations she has. Unless Joanne does not understand what drives Julia or someone like Julia belongs to a younger generation and might have a different cultural background than her own, she won’t be able to be an effective manager.

            For Julia, being micromanaged is a problem since she is a confident and independent person. But, she needs to understand she does not have a lot of real-life experience. Although being quick to learn can come handy to understand and adapt quickly, but she will need to convince her manager that she deserves the opportunity in the first place. And, being frustrated for being micromanaged or not being trusted should not be encouraged. Rather, she needs to remember, her boss, in this case, Joanne has not seen her for too long like her classmates and professors in University who trusted her and respected her, and it takes time to build trust. And Joanne does not know what motivates Julia or why she is so passionate and drive about the job. Julia needs to slow down a little bit and focus on building Joanne’s faith on her. Because even if she leaves the current non-profit she works for, she will have to start from the beginning wherever she goes.

How would you suggest Joanne and Julia use the cultural intelligence principles to resolve this intercultural situation?  Specifically, address how Joanne and Julia can help reduce the use of generalizations and stereotyping related to generation.

Cultural intelligence needs strong leadership, not only management. It calls for what

Ronald Heifetz defines as courageous leadership (Taylor, 1999), that’s the courage to face the reality and help others face their realities. That would include who they are, how they behave, what talents and skill set they have or do not have but do need, and what opportunities should be looked for and seized. Leaders must be able to see and anticipate what skill sets are needed in the future, not just develop their employees’ skills for the moment. (Goldsmith, 2006).

            As we have already identified, the main issue is stereotyping and generalization. Joanne has certain assumptions, that Julia is too inexperienced to continue working as fast as she would like. Joanne did not even invite Julia to the donor meeting, although Julia prepared the presentation. This is the result of generalization. Joanne did not differentiate Julia from any other new employee with 2 months experience. Julia and Joanne both are making assumptions about each other. Julia thinks Joanne is creating a barrier to her career growth, while Joanne thinks with so many years of experience she knows best. So, to resolve the intercultural situation they need to use Cultural Intelligence principles.

            Acquire: Since Joanne is the manager here, she needs to work on being culturally intelligent so that she can understand Julia better rather than stereotyping her based on her values and past experiences with others like Julia. She needs to interact with Julia more, follow her emotions and try to know and understand her, basically, Joanne needs to understand where Julia is coming from and why.

            Build: Next Joanne should seek mentorship from something in the non-profit, who has experience working with someone like Julia, who is independent, motivated and want to climb up the ladder fast. But, I believe if Joanne acquires knowledge on Julia bit more and then goes for this step, it will be more effective. Because the mentor would not know all the details about Julia, so Joanne will need to bring or her up to the speed about Julia.

            Actually, Julia can find a mentor too, who has experience with Joanne, so Julia can get some different perspective beyond the assumptions she had made.

            Contemplate: Joanne can set up daily or weekly meetings with Julia to find out her progress on the things she is working on. It will help them both acquire and build cultural intelligence. This will be an opportunity for Julia to show her progress and for Joanne, she can mentor Julia. But, both of them will have broken their assumptions. Joanne needs to provide constructive feedback whenever and wherever needed.

            Do: First both Joanne and Julia should get rid of their assumptions. Joanne should reflect on her own blind spots and figure out what she can improve while interacting with Julia. Joanne needs to remember this will take a while, so she needs to have patience.

While Joanne and Julia both work on cultural intelligence, Joanne can actually arrange some training programs for Julia or let Julia help in other projects where she can learn more. I believe if Joanne helps Julia grow and learn new things Julia will not feel stuck or that Joanne is being a barrier. Culturally educated employees develop global competencies in business relations while building inclusivity (Shandler, 2015).

References:

Cultural Intelligence for Leaders (2012). Saylor Academy. Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3.0

Shandler, D. (2015, July 2). Fostering Global Competence. Society for Human Resource

Management. Retrieved from https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/news/hr-magazine/Pages/070815-global-competence.aspx

What beliefs and values “root” Joanne and Julia to their individual conceptions of self?

1.     What beliefs and values “root” Joanne and Julia to their individual conceptions of self?

2.     What suggestions do you have for Joanne and Julia when working with persons of other generations?

3.     How would you suggest Joanne and Julia use the cultural intelligence principles to resolve this intercultural situation?  Specifically, address how Joanne and Julia can help reduce the use of generalizations and stereotyping related to generation.

In this paper, we will refer to the case study on “Young, Confident and moving Too Fast”, and explore the beliefs and values “root” Joanne and Julia to their individual conceptions of self. I will try to present some suggestions for both Julia and Joanne when working with persons of other generations and finally I will suggest then to use the cultural intelligence principles to resolve the intercultural situation and how they can reduce generalizations and stereotype related to generation.

What beliefs and values “root” Joanne and Julia to their individual conceptions of self?

            Here are the facts we need to consider about Julia. Julia is confident young 26 years old, who had graduated from the University of Chicago with her master’s degree in social work. She valued independence and quick to make decisions as we have learned. She was the topper of her class and was the “go-to” person for her classmates and professors for resolving conflicts, coming up with strategic and innovative ways to social work. She was motivated and passionate about social justice and social change issues involving poverty and housing.

            We can understand how and why Julia is so confident and motivated. If we examine the facts given to us, her beliefs were well supported by the fact that her professors and classmates highly respected her skills regarding social work.  And, she always came up on top in her class and her course. Her passion for social justice, especially poverty and housing could be the reason of her past experiences. Probably she got her values from her own life experiences or cultural background. But we do not know this for sure. But her passion was a great motivator, and this is why she was so driven at her work. When she got her job at a local non-profit, which provides transitional housing to the homeless, Julia wanted to move fast, she wanted to solve every homeless man and woman’s problem as soon as possible. 

            And here are the facts about Joanne, who was the boss of Julia had different values and beliefs about self. Joanne respected Julia for what Julia was doing. But she was a micromanager. We do not see evidence that Joanne trusted Julia to make the right decision, and she wanted Julia to check with her before making decisions. Joanne never understood that Julia was an independent, motivated and passionate individual. And we see, how Julia works on a presentation for a potential donor, but Joanne excluded Julia from the donor meeting. Joanne had certain beliefs and values, because of which she did not acknowledge or encourage Julia’s passion, motivation and willingness to learn. Moreover, Joanne thought Julia is not capable to learn fast and she needed time otherwise she would make mistake. And she believed as Julia’s superior she knew best what is best for Julia. Joanne, being boss of Julia was right about one fact, that she had more years of experience than Julia did. But her assumption about Julia that Julia is just like how Joanne was, might not be right. We do not see Joanne substantiating her opinions with facts. I believe, her values were absolutely different than Julia’s and that is why she thought, Julia is moving too fast and will make mistake, and moreover, her belief was Julia had the potential to do the job, but she would need time to learn, maybe because she herself was overwhelmed and needed time to learn.

The issue is stereotyping and generalization. Joanne generalized and thought Julia is like anyone else with 2 months experience, and because of Joanne’s generalization and stereotyping she was not being able to appreciate Julia, as a result, Julia felt stuck.

What suggestions do you have for Joanne and Julia when working with persons of other generations?

            Joannewho is Julia’s boss needs to put effort to understand Julia better. She needs to understand why Julia is so motivated and why does she have a high expectation in her career and what expectations she has. Unless Joanne does not understand what drives Julia or someone like Julia belongs to a younger generation and might have a different cultural background than her own, she won’t be able to be an effective manager.

            For Julia, being micromanaged is a problem since she is a confident and independent person. But, she needs to understand she does not have a lot of real-life experience. Although being quick to learn can come handy to understand and adapt quickly, but she will need to convince her manager that she deserves the opportunity in the first place. And, being frustrated for being micromanaged or not being trusted should not be encouraged. Rather, she needs to remember, her boss, in this case, Joanne has not seen her for too long like her classmates and professors in University who trusted her and respected her, and it takes time to build trust. And Joanne does not know what motivates Julia or why she is so passionate and drive about the job. Julia needs to slow down a little bit and focus on building Joanne’s faith on her. Because even if she leaves the current non-profit she works for, she will have to start from the beginning wherever she goes.

How would you suggest Joanne and Julia use the cultural intelligence principles to resolve this intercultural situation?  Specifically, address how Joanne and Julia can help reduce the use of generalizations and stereotyping related to generation.

Cultural intelligence needs strong leadership, not only management. It calls for what

Ronald Heifetz defines as courageous leadership (Taylor, 1999), that’s the courage to face the reality and help others face their realities. That would include who they are, how they behave, what talents and skill set they have or do not have but do need, and what opportunities should be looked for and seized. Leaders must be able to see and anticipate what skill sets are needed in the future, not just develop their employees’ skills for the moment. (Goldsmith, 2006).

            As we have already identified, the main issue is stereotyping and generalization. Joanne has certain assumptions, that Julia is too inexperienced to continue working as fast as she would like. Joanne did not even invite Julia to the donor meeting, although Julia prepared the presentation. This is the result of generalization. Joanne did not differentiate Julia from any other new employee with 2 months experience. Julia and Joanne both are making assumptions about each other. Julia thinks Joanne is creating a barrier to her career growth, while Joanne thinks with so many years of experience she knows best. So, to resolve the intercultural situation they need to use Cultural Intelligence principles.

            Acquire: Since Joanne is the manager here, she needs to work on being culturally intelligent so that she can understand Julia better rather than stereotyping her based on her values and past experiences with others like Julia. She needs to interact with Julia more, follow her emotions and try to know and understand her, basically, Joanne needs to understand where Julia is coming from and why.

            Build: Next Joanne should seek mentorship from something in the non-profit, who has experience working with someone like Julia, who is independent, motivated and want to climb up the ladder fast. But, I believe if Joanne acquires knowledge on Julia bit more and then goes for this step, it will be more effective. Because the mentor would not know all the details about Julia, so Joanne will need to bring or her up to the speed about Julia.

            Actually, Julia can find a mentor too, who has experience with Joanne, so Julia can get some different perspective beyond the assumptions she had made.

            Contemplate: Joanne can set up daily or weekly meetings with Julia to find out her progress on the things she is working on. It will help them both acquire and build cultural intelligence. This will be an opportunity for Julia to show her progress and for Joanne, she can mentor Julia. But, both of them will have broken their assumptions. Joanne needs to provide constructive feedback whenever and wherever needed.

            Do: First both Joanne and Julia should get rid of their assumptions. Joanne should reflect on her own blind spots and figure out what she can improve while interacting with Julia. Joanne needs to remember this will take a while, so she needs to have patience.

While Joanne and Julia both work on cultural intelligence, Joanne can actually arrange some training programs for Julia or let Julia help in other projects where she can learn more. I believe if Joanne helps Julia grow and learn new things Julia will not feel stuck or that Joanne is being a barrier.

How does an organization accurately identify the elements of its own culture?

How does an organization accurately identify the elements of its own culture?

Any Organization mainly consists of employees. When founders or just one founder start a business they start with a mission and a vision, guided by values. Eventually, as more and more people join the organization, the corporate culture develops around the original beliefs, values, and assumptions.

            Corporate culture is usually unique to the organization. And that is why each organization is unique and provides a different experience to customers. And these differences come because of the differences in beliefs, values, and assumptions.

            The leadership can play the key role to identify the organization’s culture. They need to understand what they believe in, and they need to make sure that each employee has the same believes as they do. Everyone should have a common belief. But if the organization grows too big in numbers of employees, there is a possibility that there will be an employee with different believes or values.

            What values do the employees have? Are they customer centric or are they profit-centric? The leadership needs to make sure employees understand the organizational values, and often remind them and empower them. An organization such as Zappos is all about customers, they are customer focused, but Wells Fargo turned out to be profit focused as lately the scandals came out and everybody came to know how Wells Fargo tried to make money cheating their customers. In September 2018 Wells Fargo was fined $480 million settlement in a class-action lawsuit over the unauthorized accounts scandal. But, I believe the reputation damage is far more than the monetary losses (Koren, 2018).

            Personally, I think assumptions in any organization is most misunderstood.  The leadership might assume that they promote or encourage open communication within the team members, but team members, especially the analysts or people at the lowest level, might assume the opposite. They might not find their managers approachable. These assumptions would vary from organizations to organizations, and based on other factors and situations.

The leadership team of the organization need to set up a training program to communicate all these to new joiners and should enforce regular training programs to remind the organizational culture to employees, as employees tend to forget these, and if that happens the organization will struggle to maintain its culture since it consists of the employees.  

How does it go about promoting critical awareness of culture among its personnel? 

            Whenan employee joins the organization, on his or her first they should get an idea about the organizational culture. When someone really new ( fresh out of college) joins, usually he or she is really curious because it has a lot to do with his or her own future, so if the leadership gives an idea about organizational culture, that will stick in their minds.

            For example, in my first company, which was a multinational, we were told not to disclose our salary or bonuses to our coworkers or not use heavily accented English. I personally found these to be very helpful in the 7.5 years I worked for that company.

            When I was joining my current company, the HR gave us a cultural orientation walk through. Among many things, one thing stood out and stuck to my mind. She said not to joke around with coworkers, because people from different countries and different cultural background work here, so we do not want to offend anyone, and I really liked that thought.

But, just one day is not enough to infuse the organizational culture among employees, the leadership team has to remind the values from time to time.

I got a great example in my current organization. There was an incident in a US airline, where the passenger was dragged out of the flight. Our CEO sent out an email to us, reminding out values, which include respecting each other, and pointed out our values do not match with the airline’s value, which could show any respect for its customers. He requested us to consider not flying with that particular airline.

But in my personal experience, I have seen exceptions for lateral herrings. They often ignore the orientation sessions, assuming they already know what the HR person has to say.

So in a nutshell, I believe, training, walk through and reminders from leadership work very well to promote cultural awareness among the employees.

Does cultural awareness play a role in organizational success? 

            I think it is critical. Because, if each employee is culturally aware, they know what they are working towards. As long as that serves the customer well, the organization will do well. But, I believe if the culture is not very customer friendly, or in other words, if the culture itself is not right, in that case, organization success won’t depend on whether or not there is a cultural awareness among the employees. We can think about the audit firm, Arthur Andersen. The culture was so profit oriented that they solely focused on making money out of customers.

Here is one example, McDonald’s spent money on an Ad in China showing that one customer is kneeling before McD to accept his expired coupon and McDonald’s faced caused an uproar as begging is shameful in Chinese culture (Commisceo Global,2016).

Is a global organization, in the 21st century, obligated to provide opportunities for its employees to become more culturally sensitive or increase their cultural awareness through an understanding the cultural system of values, assumptions, and symbols?

            The success of any global organization will depend on if there are cultural awareness and understanding of the cultural system of values, assumptions, and symbols. With the invention and mass use of the internet, distance is not a problem anymore. And for a global company, there will be employees of different nationalities, different regions in the same country. And to work together as a team or at least towards achieving the same goal, they should be respectful to each other. To make that happen the organization needs to promote cultural awareness through an understanding of the cultural systems of values, assumptions, and symbols.

            Organizations, often do not do a good job. In my experience, I was given out a hand note or an internet-based self-learning program pointing out what are the things I should not do when I was traveling to a different country. I think, a class with an instructor explaining to us what and why – would have been better. Otherwise, there is a chance that the employees, do not see the value in learning, and in that case, the training won’t be effective.

What do they stand to lose if they don’t?

            If the employees are not culturally aware or sensitive, while they work with other employees with different cultural background and values, the risk would be their interpersonal relationship would not be better. And a team functions better with people who understand each other better and respects each other. This is one risk aspect and probably comes with a mitigation plan. The managers can step in and make the team members aware of the cultural differences.

            I think the bigger risk is, if the customers are from a different culture and if they have different values. If the employees do not have any understanding or awareness of customers values or culture that might give a signal to the customer that the organization does not value him as a customer. And the organization might lose his business.

Reference:

Koren, James Rofen (Sep, 2018). Judge OKs $480-million settlement with Wells Fargo shareholders over unauthorized-accounts scandal. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-wells-fargo-settlement-20180905-story.html

COMMISCEO GLOBAL (November,2016). How Lack of Cultural Awareness Can Cost A Business Big. Retrieved from https://www.commisceo-global.com/blog/cultural-sensitivity-in-business-1

1

What does it mean to you to be ethical?

  • What does it mean to you to be ethical?
  • Do you anticipate ethical challenges as you go forward in your career?
  • What resources and tools will you utilize to help you when you face these challenges?

Being ethical means doing the right thing. Under any circumstances taking the decision that is best for most number of people, the environment and is sustainable in long run. While we do what is right for most number of people, business and environment, we need to be aware of the laws and regulations too, we need to comply with them every time. Sometimes, being ethical means reporting financial numbers accurately, sometimes it means not polluting the environment and protect the environment and future generation. Sometimes, being ethical might mean as simple as telling the truth. Not over exaggerating in advertisements just to boost sales numbers. For profit businesses exist to make profit, it is only ethical to give some profits back to the society, as pay back, to support and empower people, take care of the environment to create a sustainable future, brand awareness and earn a good reputation, moreover, this is considered to be ethical too.

I have worked in my current industry for more than 10 years now. And being a supervisor / team lead I have faced ethical issues. So, of course I anticipate ethical issues in future too. For example – I worked In projects where management charged clients for experienced resources, but in project they actually deployed interns and trainees, mostly for to maximize profit. They expected the interns and trainees to deliver as much as and as good as experienced resources and as you can expect, that did not go per plan. I often see this as an ethical problem. But it is not just about overcharging clients, or delivering poor quality to them. We ( because of the management’s decision) actually do not provide good training to the interns or the trainees, since they are brought into project without proper training and given a deadline to meet, in the name of on job training. It actually hampers the future of these resources. They face extreme stress, they do not get much mentoring and feel pressured to deliver. And end of the day when the project gets over, these resources leave with bitter experience and bad memories. But, when we see the projects fail, usually the higher management steps in, to find out what went wrong. I believe the executives do not want to see projects fail, so they do not support such short sighted action as replacing experienced resources with interns.

My resource and tool is mainly knowledge that I gathered in this course and of course the experiences I have in my working life. My tool, is mainly actions and communication. Identifying what is unethical and doing the right thing to stop it. For example, if I see that project manager is trying replace experienced resources with interns, I need to share my past experience with him and remind him that we are taking money from client to deliver quality product in time, and we need experienced resource for that. In case that does not work out I can escalate to higher ups. There are other ethical issues too, such as breaking HR policies in organizations. Often organization provides code of conduct, I need to follow those and when I see someone not following, I need to warn them or report them. So, I believe communication is going to be my tool to fix the probems.

A Good Team Player

Kristin joined as supervisor of Steven’s department. Steven is assistant department manager and thinks that some of his co-workers got promoted and over time opportunities just because they were liked better and he told Kristin that changing that will make it the department better. Kristin called Steven next morning and asked for the names who are not team players and Steve was referring to.

The relevant facts of the case –

Steven joined the accounts payable section in a major industrial firm after graduating from college, and he is currently the Assistant department manager. Steven is comfortable in his job and thought he knew all the ins and outs of the organization.

Kristin is the newly appointed supervisor, with a proven talent to improve the efficiency of operations. Kristin was in a similar position in a different subsidiary. Kristin was meeting each employee and asking for their opinions to improve the working place.

When Kristin asked Steven about his opinion, Steven shared his thought people got promotion and overtime work opportunities based on who liked them and not based on their merit. Kristin assured Steven that she would look into that.

Kristin wanted to see Steven the next morning and asked him to tell her the people was referring to, otherwise, Kristin would consider Steven to be not a team player.

Ethical issues including the extent of Steven’s responsibility to take action

Steven thought that some people at work are getting promotion and over time just because they are liked better. When Kristin asked Steven for the names of who Steven was referring to, according to Kristin she would not tolerate the team members who are not team players, and if Steven could not provide the names then she would consider Steven is not a team player.

            Considering Steven was honest and truthful, Steven’s problem is to give the names of his co-workers who he has known for a long time to Kristin, who is his supervisor for just 1 day. Probably Steven was not very happy that he did not get overtimes or promotions, and he thought it was not a level playing field, so he wanted to have a better chance at those going forward. So essentially, it was Steve’s perception and now Steve was being asked for evidence. If Steve gives names to Kristin, then it is guaranteed that Steve will not have a good working relationship with coworkers, and if Steve does not give any name, Steve might lose job eventually.  

            Since I made an initial assumption that Steve is an honest person, I would think Steve should go ahead tell the names who he thinks were less deserving. Maybe he would turn out to be right or he will get an explanation what they did to deserve what they got and what Steve should do going forward.

Various stakeholders, and what is at stake for each one.

Of course, Steve is a stakeholder – he needs to show Kristin that he was true, or he might lose reputation and job.

            Kristin is the next stakeholder, she wants to make the workplace efficient.

            Other employees are also stakeholders, Steve might prove some of them are not team players and that will not be good for them.

Alternatives and ethics of each alternative.  

            The first alternative Steve has is to apologize and admit that he was wrong. But that will not work out so well, as he will be considered as not a team player and probably he might lose his job for lying.

            The other option is, to be honest, and provide Kristin the full information of what Steve noticed regarding not so deserving candidates getting promoted and getting overtime. That way, with all the details Kristin, will see the full picture and as she wishes to do, increase efficiency, she might be able to weed out undeserving employees and replace them with deserving ones. From a utilitarian perspective, the 2nd option is a better one. As the whole workplace will be efficient in the long run, in the short run Kristin will get what she wants from Steve. Steve will prove his point to Kristin. But those employees who actually benefitted from the bureaucracy will lose their perks. That is a good thing for the organization in the long run.

Practical constraints

The practical constraint is taking the name of coworkers in this situation while working with them, it will dampen the working relationship. According to Kathy Caprino, “When your emotions are spinning out of control about a colleague, and you feel anger, hurt, resentment and other highly-charged emotions, you need to settle down before you communicate to anyone about the situation.  Further, think hard about backstabbing at all.  If you do it, you’ll simply project an image of yourself that you’re untrustworthy, and someone who doesn’t have the courage and strength to handle things in a positive, direct way with the individuals involved.” And moreover, since Kristin does not have much background on anyone or people before that how would Steve prove that he is right and those employees got a promotion just because they were liked and they did not deserve the overtimes or promotions

How should Steven respond?

            Steve should provide the name of his coworkers who got promotions and overtimes because they were liked and not deserved. Once he gives the names, he will have to provide reasons why they did not deserve the promotion. Because there could be a reason that they were deserving and that is why they were liked. But as Dave Kerpen says “Always tell the truth to your boss, and never tell a lie.

Lies are too risky – not only to your relationship with your boss but to your relationship with yourself.” Steve has no way to back down, so he should say what he thinks and whoever is involved.

REFERENCES

Caprino, K ( July,2012). The Top 10 Work Situations Where Honesty Is Not the Best Policy. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/kathycaprino/2012/07/31/the-top-10-work-situations-where-honesty-is-not-the-best-policy/#5042c336123a

Kerpen, D ( Sept,2013). 17 Things You Should Never Say to Your Boss. Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20130923134035-15077789-17-things-you-should-never-say-to-your-boss/